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One of the reasons for the disappearance of plants was the thoughtless plucking of them into bouquets.

Due to this, many problems of economic activity of society can be solved:

intensification of production in a number of industries; collectsaving of raw materials; protection of historical and architectural monuments; increasing the operating time of industrial and residential complexes; increasing life expectancy and reducing human morbidity in an urban environment; improving the mechanisms of interaction between society and nature.


Forest ecology: problems and prospects. Abstract

A forest is not just a large number of trees, but a set of forest plants in which they have a close influence on each other, on the soil they occupy and on the atmosphere.

Let’s compare two trees, one of which grew in space and the other in the forest. In a single tree, the height is relatively small, the crown is wide and falls almost to the ground, the branches are thick and placed at right angles, the thickness of the trunk is much larger than in the forest, and decreases rapidly with increasing height. In the forest, trees grow densely, closing their crowns, forming a continuous tent.

Trees in the forest stretch to the light, and therefore their trunks are slender and elongated, the crown is small and consists of thin branches that grow upwards mainly at an acute angle. The lower branches due to shading dry up and fall off, ie there is a natural process of cleaning the trunk from knots. The length of the tree crown is not more than 1/3 of the length of the trunk. The difference between age-old trees growing in the forest and in the open is due to different development conditions.

In the forest, all the trees together reduce the wind speed. When a strong wind blows in the open, the forest is relatively quiet. A tree that grows in space itself resists hurricane winds, so it cannot be as tall as forest trees. In addition, a single tree does not need to stretch upwards, because there is no undergrowth, and it is not shaded.

There is probably no person who is not in the forest, but not everyone will be able to answer the question: “What is a forest?”

Protection of forests from fires and damage

The forest welcomes everyone who seeks rest in it, however, it itself needs selfless help. He cannot protect his own wealth or install meters. Our conscience should be such a “counter”. Unfortunately, there are still people who believe that everything is allowed in the forest: you can light a fire, leave garbage, break trees, trample, tear and destroy vegetation. They are not worried about the fact that not only vegetation but also land on which nothing grows for three or four years burns out in the place of a lit fire.

In some places of mass recreation on each hectare there are 100-250 traces of fires. Around them – broken branches, fire-damaged trees, notches and inscriptions on trees, paper, cans, plastic bags and more. In places of mass recreation, in particular in the green areas of cities, the sounds of transistors can be heard everywhere, and therefore animals and birds flee from there, birds can not take the chicks. And where there are no birds, pests breed, which cause great damage to forests.

Often people come to the forest who do not know the rules of behavior in it, their love for the forest is only consumer. That is why it is important to spread knowledge about the forest among the population, especially students. The better they know the forest, the more consciously they will love it, take care of it. Not a thoughtless contemplation of natural beauty, but a deep and conscious understanding of its phenomena and the connections between them – this is the task of every cultured person.

Reasonable use of the gifts of nature is an inalienable human right. However, it is unacceptable to destroy and damage trees. Each injury is a gateway for various infections. Trees try to heal their wounds, spend a lot of vitality on it, die prematurely.

Forest fires cause enormous damage to forests. This is a terrible disaster not only for woody vegetation, but also for all living things. The main reason for their occurrence is the violation of fire regulations by vacationers and other people who are in the forest. Not only trees but also birds and animals die, forest litter and the topsoil burn out.

In a few minutes, a fire can destroy something that has grown over several decades. A fire causes great damage even when it spreads only on the ground and does not spread to tree canopies. At the same time forest litter burns, beneficial insects and microorganisms die. The fire weakens the trees. They are attacked by pests, and over time the trees die.

In the forest, especially in dry weather, fire safety rules should be strictly observed. In exceptional cases, only those who carry out some work in the forest are allowed to light a fire in wet weather. Before starting a fire on the lawn, in the designated place, remove the turf and take it aside. Dry grass is uprooted on the lawn. If the soil is peat, it is strictly forbidden to light a fire, as this can lead to an underground fire.

When the need for fire disappears, it is extinguished by pouring water or throwing earth, and the turf is put in place. No one is allowed to light a fire in the green areas of cities and working-class settlements. In dry weather, it is forbidden to even visit coniferous forests.

To prevent fires, the forest is cleared of bushes, dry matter, debris, special fire strips are arranged, and coniferous and deciduous plantations are grown on sands and sandy lands. For timely detection of fires in forests, air patrols and ground protection of forests are used, special observation towers, fire and chemical stations are built, and forestry enterprises are provided with special fire-fighting equipment. There are now more than 160 fire and chemical stations in the forestries of the Ukrainian SSR. Each of them has fire engines and other fire extinguishing equipment. There are more than 1,100 radio stations in the forestry for operative communication.

Over the last ten years, more than 200 fire watchtowers have been built. Most of them are telephoned, and some even have television equipment, which allows you to quickly and accurately determine the location of a forest fire.

However, the main thing in protecting forests from fires is the strict observance by vacationers of the rules of conduct in forests, especially in green areas of cities and working-class settlements. Everyone who is in the forest should know the rules of firefighting. In the event of grassroots fires, the fire is knocked down by deciduous branches, covered with earth, filled with water or special solutions of chemicals, plows are used for mineralized strips, and so on.

To stop the horse fire, it is necessary to make a fire break. Anyone who notices a fire in the forest should take immediate action to put it out; if it is not possible to do so on your own, the forest guard, the police or the nearest Council of People’s Deputies should be notified.

Due to the increased use of forests for recreation in them, and especially in the green areas of cities and working-class settlements, the following negative phenomena are observed: soil compaction, forest litter, trampling of grassy plants, disappearance of the most valuable and beautiful plants. In the compacted soil the roots of the trees “suffocate” due to lack of oxygen, the feeding conditions of the trees are disturbed. Forest litter rots quickly only in the presence of moisture, a significant number of voids and sufficient air access.

If the decomposition and rot of the litter is delayed, the soil does not get the nutrients that are in it. Trees “starve” weaken, grow poorly and even wither. To reduce the load on the forests of green areas, they need to pave roads and paths. This will help guide vacationers to remote corners. Where there are roads and paths, people walk less on the grass, compact the soil less and do not cause excessive damage to forests. The extinction of any plant species is a great loss, the consequences of which are not always predictable.

Unfortunately, recently, even in forests, stocks of medicinal plants, which are increasingly used in medicine to treat various diseases, are rapidly declining. One of the reasons for the depletion of natural resources of medicinal plants is that not everywhere and not always follow the rules and regulations of their procurement. That is why such valuable plants as spring mustard, yellow yarrow, hairy astragalus, belladonna and others are disappearing. That is why in Ukraine 151 species of higher plants are listed in the Red Book. These are the plants that can disappear completely if no urgent measures are taken.

One of the reasons for the disappearance of plants was the thoughtless plucking of them into bouquets. Some vacationers, coming to the forest, tear all the beautiful flowers that they meet.

Caring for medicinal plants and increasing their natural reserves should be everyone’s business. To do this, it is necessary to identify naturally occurring species of medicinal and rare plants, to compile their lists, to determine the area in which they grow. It is important to know where and on what soils they grow, how and when to propagate them.


Development of the global ecological socio-economic crisis. Abstract

Humanity and the environment. Sources of environmental threat. Environmental impact of thermal power plants

Nowadays, humanity is experiencing an extremely important, critical period of its history – a period of unprecedented growth threatening the existence of civilization of low negative factors: degradation of nature, degradation of human morality, increasing poverty, disease, hunger, crime, rising to a critical level of conflict between the technosphere and the biosphere.

Figuratively speaking, the development of the global environmental socio-economic crisis, which today threatens the existence of our civilization, led to several “explosions”:

demographic, ie extremely rapid, explosive growth of the Earth’s population over the past century, industrial and energy, caused by the first two explosions of violence against nature.

Consider in more detail. About 500 million cars annually emit into the Earth’s atmosphere 400 million tons of carbon monoxide, more than 100 million tons of hydrocarbons, hundreds of thousands of tons of lead. Industrial enterprises, thermal power plants, vehicles and vehicles annually produce more than 5 billion tons of coal, oil and more than a trillion cubic meters of gas. And in the nature of the reservoir annually descends about 500 billion