Beak short, massive, slightly swollen at the base.
Small dark spots are visible all over the body. Beak short, massive, slightly swollen at the base. The tail is quite long. Occurs in winter, often in small flocks in coniferous forests. It differs from pine cones by a longer tail, a different beak shape and a larger body size. Sounds – a quiet, rather melodic whistle “fyulyu … fyulyu …” or “hu-hu-huh”. Rare migratory bird in winter Polissya and the Carpathians.
Loxia pityopsittacus Borkh.
The symptoms are the same as those of the spruce cone, but the body size is larger, the beak is more massive and the voice is louder and rougher. Sounds like “clock-clock ..”. In Ukraine, it is a migratory (not annually) winter bird of the northern regions.
Pyrrhula Pyrrhula (l.)
Weight 35-37 g. In adult males the back is gray, the waist and tail are white. The top of the head and the ring around the beak are black, the tail and bottom of the abdomen are white. The rest of the lower part of the plumage is red. The wings and tail are black. In females, the lower part of the body is brownish-gray, with a pink tinge, the back is brownish-gray. Young birds are similar to females, but do not have a black “cap” on the head and all the plumage is duller than that of adult birds.
Distributed in coniferous plain and mountain forests of Europe, the Caucasus, temperate Siberia, east to Kamchatka, Sakhalin and Japan. Birds are migratory in the northern zone of distribution, in the rest of the territory settled and nomadic. In Ukraine, a few nesting birds of conifers, forests of the Carpathians and wintering, common, quite numerous birds throughout the country. Occur in tree plantations of various types. In nature, they are determined by their characteristic appearance. Voice – whistling sounds “gwu” or “rurr” song is quiet, chirping.
In winter they are kept in flocks, often come across rowan trees and eat berries. In the spring willingly pecking tree buds. They also eat the seeds and berries of many woody and shrubby plants. The chicks are fed mainly on insects and other small invertebrates. They arrive at nesting sites in the Carpathians in April. Settle in dense areas of coniferous forests.
Nests on trees, from twigs and twigs, pave them with grass, moss, feathers. Eggs are light blue, with brown spots, streaks and dots. Complete laying of 4-5 eggs, in early May – early July, there are 2 clutches per season. Incubates female, 13 days. The male feeds her all the time. The chicks remain in the nest for up to 16 days. From August to early April they lead a nomadic lifestyle, flying far beyond the nesting area.
Birds are beautiful, very decorative, destroy many weed seeds. Can cause minor damage to fruit trees by glazing the buds. But the damage is insignificant; bullfinches should be protected.
Loxia leucoptera Gm.
Differs from the previous two species in smaller size and two wide white stripes on the wings. In Ukraine, it is a rather rare migratory winter bird of the northern regions.
Click, or drawing
Carduelis Carduelis (l.)
Birds are slightly larger than taps. Weight up to 20 g. In adult males, the crown, forehead and throat are red. The rest plumage black. The back and waist are brown, the chest and body are yellowish-brown on the sides, the tail is white. The female is similar to the male, but all plumage colors are duller. Young birds do not have red and black colors on their heads. On the back, sides, chest and will brown spots.
Distributed almost throughout Europe, except the northern regions (up to the latitude of Leningrad), in North Africa, Asia Minor and Central Asia, the temperate zone of Siberia, east of Irkutsk. The birds are sedentary and nomadic. In Ukraine, nesting, sedentary and nomadic birds of all regions.
Favorite places – gardens, parks, protective strips, island forests in the steppe zone, floodplain forests, but always on the edge of the forest, on meadows, where there are thickets of weeds, the seeds of which click?
In nature, they are determined by the bright, characteristic color and voice. Characteristic call sign sound – “chi-i-vit”. “Fly-drink-drink” is constantly chirping in flight. The male’s song is not complicated, but pleasant, melodic twitter, which ends with long whistling sounds. They feed mainly on the seeds of various herbaceous plants, including many weeds, but in spring and summer are willing to eat insects. The chicks are also fed insects.
The nesting period begins in April. Nests in the form of a carefully woven bowl, made of stems of various herbaceous plants, moss, paved with down and horse hair, on trees, often on acacias, suckers, spectacle on other prickly species of trees. Complete laying of 4-5 greenish, with dark spots of eggs, twice a season – in May and late June. Incubates only the female, 13-14 days. The chicks remain in the nest for 14-15 days. In autumn, gather in large flocks and roam the fields, edges, looking for thickets of weeds.
Birds are useful and decorative. Need careful protection.
Cannabina Cannabina (l.)
Little birds. Weight 20 g. Adult males have a bright red forehead and upper head. The color of the back and waist is brown, with brownish longitudinal lines. The hair and chest are red, the abdomen is brownish-yellow, the tail is white. Females do not have a red color, the lower body with brownish spots. Young birds look like females. On the feathers of the tail and wings yellowish borders.
Distributed almost throughout Eurasia, except the Far North and southern tropical countries, in Asia Minor and North Africa. The birds are migratory, wintering in southern Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
In Ukraine they nest almost all over the territory. They are kept in bushes, on the edges, in parks and gardens of settlements, field protection strips, ravine and floodplain forests.
In nature, these birds are recognizable by the characteristic red color of the male’s head. During the nesting period are kept in pairs or small flocks. During the flight, and sometimes on the ground, you hear a very characteristic “babbling”: “bale-bale-bale” or “tu-tu-tu-tu”. The song of the males is ringing, melodic, with whistling, flute-like sounds and twittering. Often sing, sitting on telephone wires, bushes, hedges. They feed mainly on the seeds of various herbaceous plants, in spring and summer also insects; they also feed the chicks.
In nesting places appear in March. Nests in the form of baskets woven from grass stalks, roots, paved with feathers, horse hair, on bushes and low trees, usually low above the ground. Complete laying of 4-6 whitish, with reddish-brown spots and streaks of eggs twice a season, in April – in early May and in June – in early July. Autumn flight in September – October.
Useful and decorative birds need protection.
Fringilla soelebs L.
One of the most common of our songbirds. He is not very careful, he lets himself in and around, so he can be seen well without binoculars. The size of a sparrow. Striking are quite wide white stripes across the dark brown wings and on the edges of the tail topics for narrative speech, which are clearly visible in both sedentary birds and in flight. The male has a reddish-brown chest, chestnut back, green tail, bluish-gray head with black forehead, bluish beak; the female is all grayish-brown. Moves on the ground with light jumps.
Inhabits forests of various types, parks, gardens. It is easily determined in nature and by the voice – sonorous and sharp sounds “pin-pin-laziness …” which remind a little of a big tit, but are pronounced slowly and do not come to an end with a crackling trill ” tararah “sometimes finches” rumble “-” ryu … ryu … ryu … “. The song is a loud major trill, which gradually accelerates and ends with a very characteristic “stroke”: “fu-fu-fu-la-la-la-di-di-di-vi-chiu”. Singing, the male tilts his head back slightly and slightly spreads his wings.
In Ukraine – a common nesting bird in all areas where there are tree plantations; sometimes numerous; in the Black Sea Reserve – the usual wintering; often winters in other regions of the republic.
Spinus Spinus (L.)
Little birds. Weight up to 14 g. In adult males, the color of the upper body is green, with dark longitudinal stripes. On the head from above a black “cap”. The lower part of the body is yellow-green, with longitudinal dark lines on the sides. Females do not have a black “cap” and all colors are not as bright as the male Young birds, similar to the female, but slightly darker, they have more white longitudinal spots.
Distributed almost throughout Europe, the Caucasus, Turkey, Iran, Transbaikalia, the Kuril Islands, Sakhalin and Japan. The birds are sedentary, partly nomadic; during migrations they fly far enough outside the nesting area. In Ukraine, nesting, sedentary and nomadic birds of the Carpathians and Crimea. During the autumn-winter nomads are everywhere, in all areas. Favorite habitats during the nesting period – coniferous, mostly spruce, forests, during nomadism – raw floodplain forests, parks, groves, gardens of settlements.
In nature, they are determined by the characteristic green color, call signs “chulli-pii”. The song is a crackling twitter that ends with whistling sounds. During nomadism, large flocks are kept near water bodies, especially willing to sit on alders. They feed in spring and summer mainly on insects and feed the chicks with them. In autumn they eat the seeds of various trees, especially alders, as well as the seeds of various weeds.
They nest in spruce forests high in the trees. Nests – carefully woven from grass, thin twigs and moss baskets, paved with wool, down, feathers, well masked with moss and lichen. Complete laying of 5-6 greenish, with dark dots eggs, twice a summer, in late April – early May and late June. Incubates the female, 13-14 days. The chicks remain in the nest for 13-15 days. At the end of the nesting period, they gather in large flocks and roam all autumn and winter, until mid-March.
Birds are useful, decorative, destroy many pests. Need protection.
Fringilla Montifringilla l.
In size such as a finch. Weight 27-28 g. Adult males have bright variegated plumage. The head on the sides, crown, nape, neck and front of the back are black. After moulting on the feathers of the head, neck and back wide light spots, which then disappear. The waist and tail are white. Chest, ox, throat and sides red, belly white and yellowish-white, on the abdomen on the sides black spots. Fly and stern feathers are black, red stripes on the wings. Females are less bright, dark parts of the plumage are not black but brown, the red color of the lower part of the body is pale ocher.