A. Sorokin refers to simple stimuli such as light, sound, temperature, color, humidity, etc.
Only knowledge here can indicate … how it is necessary to arrange a common life, so that everyone was full and happy … So from this practical point of view, sociology is of great importance. “
Sorokin divided sociology into theoretical and practical. Theoretical sociology studies the phenomena of human interaction in terms of being.
Theoretical sociology is divided into:
social analytics, which studies the construction of both the simplest social phenomenon and complex social units formed by a combination of the simplest social phenomena. social mechanics, which studies the processes of interaction between people and the forces by which it is caused and determined. social genetics; “The task of genetic sociology – to give the main historical trends in the development of public life”
Sociology practically studies the phenomena of human interaction from the point of view of the proper.
Sociology is practical, according to Sorokin, includes social policy. “The tasks of practical sociology are clear from the name itself,” Sorokin wrote. “This discipline should be an applied discipline, based on the laws formulated by theoretical sociology, would give humanity the opportunity to manage social forces, to dispose of them in accordance with the goals.”
In the doctrine of the construction of society PA Sorokin writes: “Before proceeding to describe the construction of the population or society in the complex form in which they exist, we must study them in the simplest form.” He shows that the simplest model of a social phenomenon is the interaction of two individuals. In every phenomenon of interaction there are three elements: individuals, their acts, actions; conductors (light, sound, heat, subject, chemical, etc.).
The main forms of interaction of social groups are:
interaction of two, one and many, many and many; interaction of similar and dissimilar persons. interaction is one-sided and two-sided, long and instantaneous, organized and unorganized, solidary and antagonistic, conscious and unconscious.
The entire human population is divided into a number of closer groups, formed by the interaction of one with another, one with many and one narration ideas group with another. No matter what social group we take – be it a family or a class, or a state, or a religious sect, or a party – it is all an interaction of two or one with many or many people with many. The whole infinite sea of human communication consists of processes of interaction, one-sided and two-way, temporary and long, organized and unorganized, solidary and antagonistic, conscious and unconscious, sensory-emotional and volitional. “
“The whole complex world of human life breaks down into outlined processes of interaction.” “A group of interacting people represents a kind of collective whole or collective unity … The close causal interdependence of their behavior and gives reason to consider interacting persons as a collective whole, as one being composed of many persons. One, form water, which is sharply different from the simple sum of isolated oxygen and hydrogen, and the set of interacting people is sharply different from their simple sum. “” We will call any group of people who interact with each other a collective unity, or in short a collective. “
Sorokin then examines in detail the conditions for the emergence, preservation and disintegration of collective units.
He divides the conditions of their origin, existence and disintegration into three groups:
space or physico-chemical; biological; socio-mental.
Next, Sorokin points out two main ways (conscious and unconscious) to establish the organization of the group and the usual methods of maintaining and maintaining this organization. “Social life is nothing more than a continuous flow of emerging, lasting and disappearing collective units.” Collective unity ceases to exist only when the interaction between part or all of its members ceases. “” The cessation of collective unity leads to the disappearance of its organization. But the fall of one organization and its replacement by another does not mean the disappearance and disintegration of collective unity, but only means that the form, order and organization of the latter has changed! “
Sorokin then considers the construction and stratification of the population. He emphasizes that “the population is divided into a number of groups, that it is composed of many collective units, and does not represent something whole, unique, all members of which are equally connected with each other.”
Of the many groups into which the population is divided, the most important simple bundles of the latter will be bundles:
a) by family affiliation; b) for the state; c) by race; e) by professional; f) for property; g) for religious; h) by volume law; i) by party.
From combinations of simple bundles (groups) complex groups are formed.
Complex groups are:
a) typical and not typical for this population. Of the typical important class and nationality. b) internally antagonistic and internally solidary.
“The fate of any population and the course of history are determined not by the struggle or coordination of any one group, but by the relationship of all simple and complex social groups.” To explain the historical processes, “we have to take into account the relationships and behavior of all these groups.”
Then Sorokin makes the transition to the study of human activity, behavioral factors and mechanics of social processes. All the forces that influence people’s behavior and determine the nature of their life together can be reduced to three main categories:
category of cosmic (physico-chemical) forces, category of biological forces, category of socio-mental forces.
PA Sorokin classifies simple stimuli, such as light, sound, temperature, color, humidity, etc., and complex ones, such as the climate of a given place, the composition and nature of the soil, the change of seasons, and the alternation of the day. and night.
The main biological forces (stimuli) Sorokin includes the following:
the need for food, sexual need, the need for individual self-defense, the need for group self-defense, unconscious imitation, the need for movement, other physiological needs (sleep, rest, play, etc.).
Socio-mental factors are divided by Sorokin into simple and complex.
To the simple he refers:
Ideas; feelings-emotions; people’s excitement;
The complex include:
Material culture that surrounds man; Spiritual atmosphere of the social environment; Socio-political organization of groups, phenomena of power, wealth and money, division of labor, etc.
In his work PA Sorokin shows in detail the degree of influence of all these factors on human behavior and social life. “Man, like all phenomena of the world is not removed from the laws of necessity, that there is no” absolute freedom of will “… Dependence on external (cosmic and biological) conditions is perceived and experienced by us as a lack of will … Dependence of our behavior on socio – mental stimuli are perceived by us as a lack of dependence, as “freedom of will” and behavior! … The growth of the influence of socio-mental factors “on our behavior will be perceived by us as an increase in our will, as a decrease in our dependence on conditions external to our “I”.
That is why socio-psychological stimuli of behavior seem liberating to us. This subjectively inevitable fact was the reason for the emergence of theories of “free will”. The only meaning that can have “free will” means an objective decrease in the dependence of our behavior on cosmic and biological conditions and the growth of our dependence on socio-mental conditions – dependence, subjectively experienced by us as a will … With the course of history, the impact socio-mental forces are growing, so our “will” is growing. So it seems to us subjectively and this is the only acceptable concept of “freedom of will”. “Each of us, being born into the world, carries with him only a biological organization, biological impulses and a number of hereditary traits. Baggage – small, figure – uncertain. What comes out of it, genius or ignoramus … – it is determined by a set of social influences. It shapes a person as a socio-mental individuality. “
Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) – Major works – “Social System”, “Sociological Theory and Modern Society”. Parsons’ main thesis is that society is a complex system of social elements (groups, institutions, individuals) that are in a state of active interaction, guided by value systems that have an a priori origin.
Parsons thought that the sources of social self-movement should be sought in non-economic factors, the predominant of which is morality. It is the system of moral values shared by people that allows them to integrate into society, which at the next stage is represented in the interaction of social institutions, while production activities act only as a private aspect of this interaction.
The relations of structural units are built on the basis of functions that ensure the survival of society as a whole. Parsons identified 4 types of such functions: adaptation (the problem of rational organization and allocation of resources), goal orientation (the problem of defining goals), integration (the problem of maintaining the internal unity of the system – mandatory rules, regulations, etc .), sample support (motivation problem) and reconciling personal motives with the goals and values of society).
Each function corresponds to its subsystem (economy, politics, institutions of social control, socialization) and social institutions (factories, banks, parties, state, family, school, religion).
Magazine “Socis” No. 2, 1992. Sorokin P. “My philosophy” Socis No. 10, 1992
Sociology: labor conflicts. Abstract
Labor conflict as a type of social conflict. Stages of the conflict. The negative aspect of the conflict. The essence and characteristics of labor conflict. The positive aspect of labor conflict. Analysis and resolution of labor conflicts
Labor conflict as a type of social conflict
Social conflict is understood as any kind of struggle between individuals, the purpose of which is to achieve (or preserve) the means of production, economic position, power or other values that enjoy public recognition, as well as subjugation, neutralization or elimination of real (or imaginary) enemy. As a rule, the conflict develops through the confrontation of individual and public interests.
In this case, the actual conflict must be distinguished from other forms of confrontation, which may be the consequences:
lack of agreement (for example, between participants in the discussion); conflicts of interest (different groups or individuals); conflicts (moral or legal norms); rivalry (for example, in the field of economics); competitions (for example, for the title of the best in the profession).
None of these forms of confrontation is in itself a conflict, although it can lead to its emergence.